EFT Universe logo
Research & Studies

Associations of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) with Sleep Duration and Quality: The BCOPS Study

Citation (APA style): Charles, L. E., Mnatsakanova, A., Fekedulegn, D., Violanti, J. M., Gu, J. K., & Andrew, M. E. (2022). Associations of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with sleep duration and quality: The BCOPS study. Sleep Medicine, 89, 166–175. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2021.12.011

Abstract

Background: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our objective was to investigate associations between ACEs and sleep measures among 206 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study.

Methods: ACEs (independent variable) was assessed using the ACE questionnaire. Sleep measures were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and actigraphy. ANOVA/ANCOVA were used to investigate associations between ACEs and sleep measures.

Results: The mean self-reported sleep duration was significantly lower among participants who reported ≥1 ACEs compared to those who reported no ACEs (6.0 ± 0.11 vs. 6.4 ± 0.14 h; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.035). Sleep efficiency was significantly lower among participants who reported ≥1 ACEs compared to those who reported none (mean = 88.7%, 95% CI = 87.7–89.6 vs. 90.2%, 89.2–91.2; unadjusted p = 0.031) but was slightly attenuated and lost statistical significance after multivariate-adjustment (88.8%, 87.8–89.7 vs. 90.1%, 88.9–91.1; p = 0.094). Compared to participants who reported no ACEs, those who reported ≥1 ACEs had a higher mean activity index score (36.9 ± 0.96 vs. 31.2 ± 1.25; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.001); a higher mean wake after sleep onset (WASO) (44.3 ± 2.24 vs. 35.3 ± 2.92 min; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.019); and a higher sleep fragmentation index (3.8 ± 1.65 vs. 3.3 ± 1.20 unadjusted p = 0.044 and 3.8 ± 0.13 vs. 3.3 ± 0.18; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.062). Among men (but not women) who reported ≥1 ACEs, self-reported sleep duration was significantly lower (5.9 ± 0.13 vs. 6.4 ± 0.15 h; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.025) and activity index was significantly higher (39.1 ± 1.3 vs. 33.2 ± 1.51; multivariate-adjusted p = 0.004) compared to those who reported no ACEs.

Conclusion: Exposure to ≥1 ACE was associated with worse sleep measures.

Keywords

adverse childhood experiences, ACEs, police officers, law enforcement officers, sleep, actigraphy